– February 28, 2023 –
by Eduardo Bertassi*
*Eduardo Bertassi is Graduated in Electrical Engineering (emphasis in Computer Engineering) from Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo (EPUSP) and has an MBA degree in Project Management from Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV).
ChatGPT or Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer is a chatbot launched by OpenAi, a non-profit research company founded in 2015 by Elon Musk (Paypal, Tesla CEO, Spacex and Twitter), Sam Altman (current CEO of Open AI), Peter Tiel (co -founder of Paypal and Palantir Technologies), Reid Hoffman (LinkedIn co-founder) among other technology entrepreneurs. Around the beginning of December 2022 ChatgPT began to gain space in Brazilian newspapers due to the simplicity users could ask questions and the way answers were formulated; it seemed that a human being gave the answers. Unlike other more rudimentary chats, through ChatGPT you can create poems, songs, TV plots and even debug computer code programs from the questions asked by users. In this short interview made for CEST, it is possible to notice how this technology is promising despite the need of more development to prevent that more complex questions be answered wrongly. The questions and answers below were originally done in English and were automatically translated to Portuguese (without human aid) through Microsoft’s Word software.
Hello, I am Eduardo Bertassi, from CEST (Centro de Estudos Sociedade e Tecnologia) at Universidade de Sao Paulo and I would like to interview you. May I interview you? And, by the way, have you ever heard about Universidade de Sao Paulo in Brazil?
Yes, you may interview me. And, Yes I am familiar with Universidade de São Paulo, it is one of the most prestigious universities in Brazil, founded in 1934 and is in São Paulo, Brazil. It is considered one of the best universities in Latin America and has a strong reputation in various fields, including science, technology, engineering, and social sciences. Ask me any question you have; I will do my best to provide informative and accurate responses.
Tell me a brief view of artificial intelligence in the last 30 years.
In the last 30 years, artificial intelligence (AI) has made significant advancements in various fields such as natural language processing, computer vision, and machine learning. In the early 1990s, AI research focused on expert systems and rule-based systems, which were limited in their ability to handle uncertainty and complexity.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, machine learning, particularly deep learning, began to gain traction as a powerful tool for AI. This led to breakthroughs in image and speech recognition, and natural language processing.
In recent years, AI has been applied to a wide range of industries, including healthcare, finance, and transportation. Advancements in reinforcement learning and generative models have also led to the development of intelligent agents that can play complex games and generate realistic images and text.
However, there are also concerns about the ethical and societal implications of AI, such as job displacement, privacy, and the potential misuse of AI. Many organizations, governments, and researchers are working to address these concerns through responsible AI practices and guidelines.
Tell me a brief view of artificial intelligence greatest advancements in the last 5 years.
In the last 5 years, there have been several significant advancements in the field of artificial intelligence. Some of the most notable include:
- Improved natural language processing (NLP) capabilities, including deep learning-based models such as BERT and GPT-3 that can understand and generate human language with high accuracy.
- Advancements in computer vision, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and object detection algorithms that can accurately identify and classify objects within images and videos.
- Development of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, such as AlphaGo and OpenAI’s Dota 2-playing AI, that have been able to outperform human experts in complex, strategic tasks.
- Breakthroughs in generative models, such as GANs and VAEs, which can generate realistic images, videos, and even text.
- Advances in explainable AI (XAI) and the development of methods for interpreting and understanding the decisions made by AI models.
- The use of AI in various industries such as healthcare, finance, and transportation, to improve efficiency and decision-making.
Overall, in the last five years, AI has become more powerful and widely adopted, but also more complex and challenging to understand and control.
Why is it that AI has become more complex and challenging to understand and control? Is there any immediate danger we should be worried about?
AI has become more complex and challenging to understand and control for several reasons:
- Advancements in AI research: AI research has made significant advancements in recent years, resulting in the development of more powerful and versatile models such as deep learning and reinforcement learning. These models have the ability to perform tasks that were previously thought to be the exclusive domain of humans, such as image and speech recognition, but they are also more complex and difficult to understand and interpret.
- Large and diverse data sets: The availability of large and diverse data sets has allowed AI models to learn from more examples and improve their performance. However, the complexity of the data sets and the models used to process them make it more difficult to understand how the models are making their predictions.
- Lack of interpretability: Many AI models, especially deep learning models, are not interpretable, which means that it is difficult to understand how the model is making its predictions. This lack of interpretability makes it difficult to understand how the model is working and to identify any potential biases or errors.
- Limited understanding of AI: Despite the significant advancements in AI research, our understanding of AI is still limited. This lack of understanding makes it difficult to anticipate and control the potential risks and unintended consequences of AI.
There is no immediate danger that we should be worried about AI, however, as the use of AI becomes more prevalent, it is important to ensure that its use is responsible, ethical and aligned with the interests of society as a whole. It is crucial to have regulations, guidelines and an ongoing monitoring of the use of AI, to identify any potential risks and unintended consequences. Additionally, it is important to continue research and development in this field, to improve the interpretability, safety and accountability of AI systems.
What could be a detailed explanation of what ChatGPT is and why does it get so famous since it has gone public?
ChatGPT is a large-scale language model developed by OpenAI. It is based on the Transformer architecture, which is a type of neural network that is particularly well-suited to processing sequential data, such as text. ChatGPT is trained on a massive dataset of internet text, and it can generate human-like text in response to a wide variety of prompts.
One of the key features of ChatGPT is its ability to generate highly coherent and fluent text. This is due to its large-scale training dataset, which allows it to learn a wide range of language patterns and styles. Additionally, the model has been fine-tuned on various specific tasks such as language translation, summarization, question answering which makes it versatile.
ChatGPT has become quite popular since it was released to the public in 2019 because of its ability to generate high-quality text, which has a wide range of potential applications. For example, it can be used to generate realistic dialogue for chatbots and virtual assistants, to improve language translation, and to assist in content creation, such as writing articles or composing poetry.
Another reason for its fame is the availability of pre-trained models for researchers and developers to use, which makes it relatively easy to incorporate into their own projects and workflows. This has helped to fuel the growth of a vibrant community of developers and researchers who are exploring new and exciting ways to use ChatGPT.
In summary, ChatGPT’s ability to generate coherent and fluent text, versatility due to fine-tuning, and ease of use, as well as its ability to be fine-tuned on a wide range of tasks, have made it one of the most widely used and popular language models to date.
Explain me what is the GPT model used by ChatGPT and its evolution from his invention until today.
GPT (Generative Pre-training Transformer) is a type of language model developed by OpenAI. It is a deep neural network architecture that uses a transformer-based architecture to generate text. The transformer architecture was introduced in the paper “Attention is All You Need” by Google researchers in 2017. It is a neural network architecture that uses self-attention mechanisms to process input sequences, which allows for parallel processing of the input and has proven to be very effective for a wide range of natural language processing tasks.
The first version of GPT, GPT-1, was released in 2018. It was trained on a dataset of over 40GB of internet text and had 1.5 billion parameters. GPT-1 demonstrated the ability to generate highly coherent and fluent text, even when prompted with a relatively short context. This made it a powerful tool for tasks such as chatbot development, content generation, and language translation.
In 2019, OpenAI released GPT-2, which was trained on a much larger dataset of over 570GB of internet text and had 1.5 billion parameters. GPT-2 demonstrated even better performance than GPT-1 in generating human-like text, and it was able to perform a wide range of natural language processing tasks, such as text classification, named entity recognition, and text summarization.
In 2020, OpenAI released GPT-3, which was trained on an even larger dataset of over 570GB of internet text and had 175 billion parameters. GPT-3 demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in a wide range of natural language processing tasks, such as language translation, conversation, and question answering. GPT-3 also showed the ability to perform a wide range of tasks that require common sense and background knowledge, such as writing essays, composing poetry, and coding.
Overall, the GPT models have evolved to become more powerful and versatile, with each new version demonstrating improved performance and the ability to perform a wider range of natural language processing tasks. The most recent version, GPT-3, has received a lot of attention and has been used to develop a wide range of applications and services, including chatbots, automated writing, and language translation.
Why should we be concerned about the malicious use of ChatGPT?
ChatGPT, like any other advanced AI technology, has the potential to be used for malicious purposes. Here are a few reasons why we should be concerned about the malicious use of ChatGPT:
- Text generation capabilities: ChatGPT’s ability to generate fluent and coherent text could be used to create convincing fake news, impersonate real individuals online, or generate spam.
- Concealing intent: ChatGPT’s ability to understand and generate text could be used to create sophisticated phishing attacks or conceal malicious intent in natural language communications.
- Automated disinformation: ChatGPT’s ability to generate text in large scale could be used to automate the creation and distribution of disinformation, which can be used to spread false information, influence public opinion, and interfere in political processes.
- Privacy and security: ChatGPT’s ability to generate text based on a given context could be used to infer sensitive information about individuals, such as their personal beliefs, preferences, or behavior.
- Bias: ChatGPT, like any other AI model, is trained on a large dataset which could reflect the biases present in the data. If these biases are not identified and corrected, they could be amplified and perpetuate harmful stereotypes.
It’s important to note that the use of AI models like ChatGPT can also have positive effects on society, such as improving healthcare, education, and transportation. However, it is crucial to consider the potential negative impacts and to develop and implement guidelines and regulations to mitigate these risks.
What is the importance of regulating the use of systems like ChatGPT and, is it really possible to do that?
Regulating the use of systems like ChatGPT is important for several reasons:
- Preventing misuse: Without regulation, it is possible for malicious actors to use ChatGPT for harmful purposes, such as creating fake news, impersonating real individuals online, or spreading disinformation. Regulation can help prevent such misuse by establishing guidelines for the use of ChatGPT and enforcing penalties for noncompliance.
- Ensuring fairness: ChatGPT, like any other AI model, is trained on a large dataset which could reflect the biases present in the data. Without regulation, these biases could be amplified and perpetuate harmful stereotypes. Regulation can help ensure that the use of ChatGPT is fair and does not discriminate against certain groups of people.
- Protecting privacy: ChatGPT’s ability to generate text based on a given context could be used to infer sensitive information about individuals. Regulation can help protect privacy by establishing guidelines for the collection and use of personal data, and by enforcing penalties for noncompliance.
- Maintaining trust: As ChatGPT and similar models become more prevalent, it is essential to maintain trust in their abilities. Regulation can help maintain trust by establishing standards for the development and deployment of these models and by providing transparency about how they are being used.
It is possible to regulate the use of systems like ChatGPT, but it requires the development and implementation of guidelines and regulations specifically tailored to these types of systems. This process will likely involve collaboration between governments, industry, and researchers. Additionally, it will require ongoing monitoring and enforcement to ensure compliance and to adapt to new developments in AI technology.
Is it possible to foresee a future without the use of artificial intelligence embedded on several different products?
It is unlikely that we will see a future without the use of artificial intelligence (AI) embedded in various products and services. AI has become an integral part of many industries, and it is increasingly being used to improve efficiency, automate tasks, and make better decisions. The wide range of potential applications for AI, from healthcare to transportation, has made it a key technology for many industries, and it is likely that its use will continue to expand in the future.
The increasing availability of computational power, data storage, and cloud-based services has made it easier for companies and individuals to develop and deploy AI models. Additionally, the rapid advancements in AI research have resulted in the development of more powerful and versatile models, such as deep learning and reinforcement learning, which have the ability to perform tasks that were previously thought to be the exclusive domain of humans.
However, the use of AI also implies a responsible and ethical use of it, considering the consequences that its misuse could bring. Therefore, there is an ongoing debate about the risks and benefits of AI, and it is likely that there will be ongoing discussions about how to regulate and control its use in the future.
In conclusion, the use of AI is becoming increasingly prevalent, and it is likely to continue to be so in the future. However, it is important to ensure that the use of AI is responsible, ethical, and aligned with the interests of society as a whole.
Can you give me at least 25 examples of potential unintended consequences of using artificial intelligence? (ChatGPT only gave me 24 examples)
- Bias and discrimination: AI models can perpetuate and even amplify biases present in the data used to train them, leading to unfair and discriminatory decisions.
- Job displacement: Automation and the use of AI in industries such as manufacturing, transportation, and customer service could result in job loss for human workers.
- Privacy concerns: The collection and use of personal data by AI systems can raise privacy concerns and potential violations of personal privacy rights.
- Dependence on technology: As AI systems become more prevalent and integrated into society, individuals and organizations may become increasingly dependent on them, leading to potential vulnerabilities in the event of system failure or sabotage.
- Lack of interpretability: Many AI models are not interpretable, making it difficult to understand how the model is making decisions and to identify any potential biases or errors.
- Cybersecurity risks: AI systems and the data they rely on can be vulnerable to cyber-attacks, leading to potential breaches of sensitive information.
- Decision-making errors: AI systems can make errors or mistakes in decision-making, which can have serious consequences, particularly in safety-critical applications such as healthcare and transportation.
- Increased surveillance: The use of AI for surveillance purposes can raise concerns about civil liberties and privacy rights.
- Misuse and weaponization: AI systems can be misused or weaponized for malicious purposes, such as cyber-attacks or spreading disinformation.
- Exacerbation of existing societal issues: AI systems can exacerbate existing societal issues such as inequality and discrimination, if not properly designed and regulated.
- Overreliance on AI: Overreliance on AI systems can lead to a loss of critical thinking and decision-making skills among individuals and organizations.
- Lack of accountability: The lack of interpretability of many AI systems makes it difficult to determine who is accountable in the event of a mistake or accident.
- Ethical concerns: The use of AI raises a number of ethical concerns, such as the moral responsibility of AI systems and the potential for AI to be used to violate human rights.
- Economic disruption: The widespread adoption of AI could lead to significant economic disruption, as automation reduces the need for human labor in certain industries.
- International relations disruption: AI could disrupt international relations and create new challenges in areas such as arms control, trade, and economic stability.
- Autonomous weapons: The development of autonomous weapons (killer robots) raises concerns about accountability and the ethical use of force.
- AI-generated content: AI-generated content such as deepfake videos and audio can be used to spread misinformation and propaganda.
- Social manipulation: AI-powered social media bots can be used to influence public opinion and spread disinformation.
- Health and safety risks: AI-powered medical devices and diagnostic tools can be vulnerable to hacking, leading to potential health and safety risks.
- Economic inequality: The use of AI in automation and decision-making can exacerbate economic inequality by replacing human jobs and increasing the power of large corporations.
- Legal and regulatory challenges: The rapid development of AI technologies can outpace legal and regulatory frameworks, making it difficult to ensure that AI systems are used responsibly and ethically.
- Lack of transparency: AI systems can make decisions without providing explanations, making it difficult for users and regulators to understand how the system arrived at its decisions.
- Environmental impact: The increased use of AI systems can have an impact on energy consumption and the environment.
- War and conflict: AI systems can be used to increase the efficiency of military operations, potentially making war and conflict
Can you give me at least 25 examples of potential well-intended consequences of using artificial intelligence?
- Improved healthcare: AI can be used to improve patient outcomes by analyzing large amounts of medical data, identifying patterns, and assisting with diagnosis and treatment.
- Increased efficiency: AI can be used to automate repetitive tasks, increasing efficiency and productivity in a variety of industries.
- Better decision-making: AI can be used to analyze large amounts of data, providing insights and assisting with decision-making in a variety of fields.
- Improved safety: AI can be used to monitor and control dangerous environments, such as nuclear power plants, and assist with search and rescue operations.
- Personalized education: AI can be used to personalize education, providing customized learning experiences for students.
- Environmental protection: AI can be used to monitor and protect the environment, such as by monitoring wildlife populations and analyzing satellite imagery to detect deforestation.
- Improved transportation: AI can be used to optimize transportation networks, reducing traffic congestion and increasing safety.
- Increased accessibility: AI can be used to provide voice and gesture-based interfaces for people with disabilities.
- Improved financial systems: AI can be used to detect fraud, improve risk management, and optimize investment decisions.
- Enhanced creativity: AI can be used to assist with creative tasks, such as music composition and film editing.
- Improved communication: AI can be used to improve natural language processing, making it easier for people to communicate with machines.
- Improved energy management: AI can be used to optimize energy consumption, reduce waste and improve energy efficiency.
- Predictive maintenance: AI can be used to predict when equipment is likely to fail, reducing downtime and improving productivity.
- Improved customer service: AI can be used to provide more efficient and personalized customer service.
- Intelligent automation: AI can be used to automate repetitive tasks, allowing human employees to focus on higher-level tasks.
- Better understanding of the world: AI can be used to analyze large amounts of data, providing insights, and helping to advance scientific research.
- Improved air and water quality: AI can be used to monitor and control air and water quality, identifying patterns and early warning signals.
- Optimization of logistics: AI can be used to optimize logistics, reducing costs and improving delivery times.
- Improved crop yields: AI can be used to optimize crop yields, using data on weather, soil, and other factors.
- Improved city planning: AI can be used to optimize city planning, increasing efficiency, and reducing congestion.
- Improved public safety: AI can be used to monitor and analyze crime patterns, making it easier to prevent and solve crimes.
- Improved gaming experience: AI can be used to create more realistic and engaging gaming experiences.
- Improved natural language processing: AI can be used to improve natural language processing, making it easier for people to communicate with machines.
- Improved accessibility: AI can be used to provide voice and gesture-based interfaces for people with disabilities.
- Improved accessibility to education and resources: AI can be used to create educational and other resources that are accessible to people in remote locations and other areas that are difficult to reach.
How do the creators of ChatGPT expect their technology be used peacefully in the future?
The creators of ChatGPT, OpenAI, have stated that they expect the technology to be used in a wide range of peaceful applications in the future. Some examples they have mentioned include:
- Improving human-computer interactions through the use of more natural and intuitive language interfaces, such as chatbots and virtual assistants.
- Automating repetitive or time-consuming tasks, such as data entry and language translation, to improve efficiency and productivity.
- Enhancing creative activities, such as writing, composing music, and creating artwork, by providing AI-generated suggestions and inspiration.
- Improving natural language understanding, which can be used in a range of applications such as question answering, summarization, and sentiment analysis.
- Helping to improve education and accessibility by providing AI-generated text that is easy to understand for people with low reading levels or for those learning a new language.
- Assisting in scientific research by providing the ability to automatically analyze large amounts of text data and identify patterns and trends.
OpenAI also emphasizes the importance of responsible use and the development of robust safety measures to prevent the misuse of language models like ChatGPT. They also encourage researchers and developers to use their models with ethical considerations in mind, and to strive to mitigate any potential negative consequences that may arise from their use.
How do ChatGPT expects to evolve?
The creators of ChatGPT, OpenAI, expect the model to continue to evolve in several ways in the future. Some of the potential developments they have mentioned include:
- Increasing the size and diversity of the training data, which would allow the model to learn more language patterns and styles, and to generate more coherent and fluent text.
- Improving the model’s ability to understand and generate context, which would enable it to better understand the meaning of text and to generate more relevant and appropriate responses.
- Incorporating additional forms of input, such as images and audio, which would allow the model to understand and generate multimodal data.
- Developing more advanced techniques for fine-tuning the model on specific tasks, which would enable it to perform a wider range of language-related tasks.
- Incorporating more advanced safety measures, such as counterfactual data augmentation and adversarial training, to make the model more robust to malicious inputs and to prevent misuse.
- Improving the interpretability of the model, which would allow researchers and developers to better understand its decision-making process and to identify and address potential biases.
- Developing more advanced architectures to improve the performance and efficiency of the model.
Overall, OpenAI intends to continue to research, improve and advance the capabilities of ChatGPT, with the goal of making it more versatile, accurate, and safer for a wide range of applications.
Thank you for your time, ChatGPT!
You’re welcome. I’m glad I could help. If you have any other questions, feel free to ask.